Endemic species Mulberry lat. Pinus heldreichii Christ


Endemic species Mulberry lat. Pinus heldreichii Christ is a species from the family Pinaceae (pines). Local names for this species are: mulberry, lightning, ivory, black mulberry, etc. It is especially important because it is a tertiary relic and a subendemic species. It can grow up to 30 m tall and grow up to 1 m in diameter, with characteristic whitish-gray bark in the younger stages or darker, ash-gray bark in the old stages. The mulberry is recognizable by the specific cracking of the bark on more clearly circumscribed polygonal flakes that give a pattern such as an armor, which in Germany is called ‘Panzerkiefer’. Mulberry adorns the slopes throughout the mountainous and pre-mountainous areas of Konjic Municipality, with particular emphasis on its area in Prenj, in the canyon valley of the Neretva and Rakitnica rivers. Also, the great importance of this endemic species is reflected in its tourism potential. Numerous visitors during the rafting, hiking and climbing tours, as well as a scientific expedition as a positive experience include mulberry and its appearance in various attractive locations.

It grows predominantly on limestone and dolomite, and on ridges, steep slopes with cliffs and gullies. During the winter months, under the burden of larger amounts of wet snow, younger trees often experience growth deformities. According to Red List data of the Flora of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the 2013. Mulberry is located in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the following locations: Mountain Vitorog, Preslica, Prenj, Borasnica, Bjelasnica, Vranovina, Visocica, Cvrsnica, Cabulja, Vran, Orijen and Plasa, peaks of the Hranisava, Lupoglav, Tisovica, Zelena Glava, Kantar (starts at 1060 m), locality Rujiste (1700 m), Prislap and Porim plateau, Muharnica and Masna Luka.

Black and White pine

Pinus nigra - Black pine is the most common species of this genus. The main feature of pines is their durability to the most extreme conditions of the environment in which they live (snow, rain, drought, wind, ice, cold weather, soil, altitude), as well as longevity. Black pine can live as much as 500 years. White pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a coniferous tree, up to 40 m high. The needles are placed in bundles of two, and are also flexible and twisted. It blooms in the spring and little brown cones are formed from the female flowers.

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