http://mountaintopcampground.com/?author=1 Prenj Mountain is located in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, belongs to the geographical regions of the High and Low Herzegovina, while in terms of natural regions it is located in the region of the Bosnia and Herzegovina High Karst. In the north, northeast and west the border is the valley of the river Neretva, on the east it borders on the mountain massif ”Crvanj”, on the south ”Velez” and the valley ”Bijelo polje”. It belongs to the municipalities of Konjic, Mostar and Jablanica. The highest peak is Zelena glava, 2155 m/h, followed by Lupoglav 2102 m, Osobac 2099 m, Otis 2097 m, Vjetreno brdo (Erac) 2082 m, Herac 2042 m, Vidina kapa 2032 m, Ovca 2021 m, Botini 2015 m, Velika kapa 2007 m, and as eleventh Kerac 2030 m.
Prenj mountain forms the boundary between the Herzegovinian karst to the south and the vast plateaus to the north, whose relief is conditioned by the specific mountain climate. Warm air masses from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean influences) and cold masses from the north through vast plateaus and through river valleys break trough from the south. Prenj’s peaks of the North retain the penetration of cold masses from the interior of the continent, as well as the Mediterranean flows into the interior. At the foothill of the mountain, in the hilly belt, predominate deciduous forests, such as oak, hornbeam, and certainly beech, but also black pine up to about 1000 m n / v, especially on the north side. Above the hilly belt rises the mountain belt to about 1600 m rich in beech and spruce, then with pine and mulberry. Alpine meadows rise to the very top of the Prenj, dominating the forest belt, full of seasonal flowers (gentian and edelweiss and many others). Together with Cvrsnica and Cabulja, Prenj belongs to the rich mountain endemic areas.
The mountain morphostructure of Bjelasnica enters the Konjic municipality in the southern and southwestern parts. This mountain is a typical antiform (horst – anticline) with a height of over 2000 m. The highest peak is at an altitude of 2067 m. The length of this mountain morphostructure is approximately 30 km and its width is about 15 km. Fluvial-denudation processes of flushing, dredging, drifting, flowing and sliding of the soil are represented on the slopes of Bjelasnica. Bjelasnica is characterized by exceptional climate variability.
The winters are very harsh and long, so that spring can only be felt in mid-May, and the short summers can be accompanied by waves of cold air. Bjelasnica has one natural lake, Blatacko lake which is today in a state of eutrophication and by definition nowdays, it doesn’t represent a lake. Within the municipality of Konjic, there are few settlements on the Bjelasnica mountain as following: Blace, Cuhovici, Dzepi, Lukomir and Vrdolje. In addition to Igman, Jahorina and Trebevic, Bjelasnica is also known for the XIV Winter Olympics, where the city of Sarajevo hosted and organized this world event in 1984.
Visocica mountain mostly enters with it’s surface to the territory of Konjic municipality, except for the northern slopes. On the east side it is separated from the river Tresanica by the river Ljuta, from the south and southwest by the river Neretva from Prenj mountain, and from the west and north by the canyon of the river Rakitnica from Bjelasnica mountain. It is probably named because of numerous high peaks. Visocica from the north descends slightly to the south in the village Bjelimice from the average altitude of 1400 m, and then steeply descends into the Neretva valley. The slopes of Visocica descend into Rakitnica by vertical cliffs and slopes to the north and west. In the middle of the mountain rises the ridge Ljeljen with the highest peak called Mosque (1967) m above sea level.
The northern part of Visocica is consisted from mountain pastures at an altitude of 1 300 to 1 400 m, while the southern part is covered with forest. Beside mentioned peaks, Visocica has more significant peaks, as it follows: Vito (1960 m), Veliko Brdo (1884 m), Subar (1820 m). The Visocica area is relatively waterless. The springs are located mainly along the cattle summer flats. Below the northern slopes of the mountain are the villages of Bobovica, Ozimine, Djulbasici, Pervizi (Donja Tusila) and Sinanovici (Gornja Tusila), located in the municipality of Trnovo. One of the most attractive areas on Visocica is the narrower area around the Puzim peak (1776 m). It stands apart from the rest of the mountain and draws its attention to its sharp peaks.
Zec mountain is a mid-Bosnian mountain that belongs to the Vranica’s mountain group and is geomorphologically one of the reef branches of the indented mass of Vranica. The highest peak of the mountain is Smiljeva kosa (1871 m). On the Zec mountain there are deposits of quartz porphyry. On the slopes of Zec mountain, at 1430 meters above sea level, there is a fortress and a mansion of the Bosnian kings called ”Kozograd”.
There are also Veliko/Great and Malo/Little lake on the Zec mountain. Although the Neretvica river flows under the slopes of the nearby Vitreusa mountain, the first kilometer reaches the southeastern slopes of Zec Mountain. Further on, it makes its way through large chasms and deep notches until it finally descends to the plain of Podhum village, from where it flows peacefully to its confluence with the Neretva River near Ostrozac. The endemic White Vranica’s Bell is growing on Zec mountain.
Mountain slopes of Bitovnja are located in the northwest of Konjic municipality. Its western, southern and southeastern hillsides are part of this municipality. It is about 10 km north of the town of Konjic. To the east it continues to Ivan mountain, and to the northwest and west to Pogorelica and Zec mountain. The highest peak of Bitovnja is Lisin (1 742 m). It is an orographic separation between the Black Sea and the Adriatic basins.
There are river springs of Zeljeznica and Crna on Bitovnja’s mountain, which belong to the basin of Bosna (the Black Sea basin), and to Tresanica and Kraljustica, tributaries of the Neretva and Jablanicko lake (Adriatic basin). The mountain is rich by waters and many springs. Up to 1500 m in height there are mixed and coniferous forests and the highest parts are pastures.
Treskavica is part of the Konjic municipality with its western and southwestern parts. This mountain is divided into two units: the northern part called Bosanska or Trnovska Treskavica and the southern part called Hercegovacka, Humska or Kalinovacka Treskavica. The highest peak of Treskavica is at 2 088 metres and is characterized by the fact that mountaineers call it by different names (Paklijas, Djokin toranj/tower, Mala caba).
Treskavica is separated from Visocica in the west by the river Ljuta, in the northwest by the mountain Bjelasnica, in the north and northeast by mountain Jahorina, where the Crna river is a natural border, and in the south and southeast by the mountain Lelija. This mountain abounds in water, with 365 springheads or springs, among which are the springs of five major rivers, namely: Bistrica, Ljuta, Bijela and Rakitnica, where Ljuta flows throughout the area of Konjic municipality, and Rakitnica by its middle and lower streams.
The entire length of the Ivan mountain is stretched between Bitovnja in the northwest and Bjelasnica in the southeast. In terms of altitude, it consists of four parts: Rudno Brdo (1270 m), Mali Ivan (1000 m), Ivan saddle (976 m) and Ivan mountain (1542 m). Above Rudno Brdo, a 200 m rises abruptly high fault section of the Bjelasnica-Volujak branch. Thus, morphologically, Ivan mountain is sharply separated from Bjelasnica. In terms of its geomorphological composition and geological composition, Ivan Mountain is the extreme southeastern outcrop of the Central Bosnia mountains.
The lithologic composition is mainly composed of carbonaceous shales, which, as well as its main ridge, fall towards the bend, where, at an altitude of 1 174 m, they enter under the younger Permian hollow limestones and dolomites, of which was built the Ivan saddle. Also, on this area have been discovered bays similar to sinkholes, one abyss, as well as a cave between Bradina and Podorasac, popularly known as the ”Terrifying/Strasiva Cave”. The average annual rainfall is about 1 995 mm. The main hydrological backbone of this area is the Tresanica river, the right tributary of the Neretva river. Ivan saddle is one of the main traffic junctions in the country, passing the M-17 main road, but also a railway linking Herzegovina with Bosnia.